We don’t send messages like computers, and we don’t neatly alternate between the roles of sender and receiver as an interaction unfolds. During the initial stages of a romantic relationship individuals may be so “love struck” that they don’t see incompatible personality traits or don’t negatively evaluate behaviors they might otherwise find off-putting. If the flow of information is blocked for some reason or the parties cannot make themselves understood, then communication fails. For example, you may realize you’re hungry and encode the following message to send to your roommate: “I’m hungry. Don’t read too much into a single gesture or nonverbal cue. Why or why not? Ellis, R. and Ann McClintock, You Take My Meaning: Theory into Practice in Human Communication (London: Edward Arnold, 1990), 71. Physical context includes the environmental factors in a communication encounter. If the recipient’s response is inappropriate, the sender may conclude that the communication was unsuccessful and the message was not transmitted. The conversation takes place in a construction cite, which is surrounded by barbed wire fence, in the city. 3. If your roommate has headphones on and is engrossed in a video game, you may need to get his attention by waving your hands before you can ask him about dinner. The term communication process refers to the exchange of information (a message) between two or more people. In 1960, David Berlo expanded the linear transmission model with the sender-message-channel-receiver (SMCR) model of communication. Process is step by step approach to something. It is the response by the receiver. Feedback can be verbal or non-verbal. Semantic noise can also interfere in communication between people speaking the same language because many words have multiple or unfamiliar meanings. Therefore, communication isn’t judged effective or ineffective in this model based on whether or not a single message was successfully transmitted and received. For example, you might smile unintentionally when you hear a pleasing or enjoyable idea or piece of information. Communication develops as we get older. When you become aware of how communication functions, you can think more deliberately through your communication encounters, which can help you better prepare for future communication and learn from your previous communication. They were also influenced by the advent and spread of new communication technologies of the time such as telegraphy and radio, and you can probably see these technical influences within the model (Shannon & Weaver, 1949). Feedback includes messages sent in response to other messages. For example: according to Herald D. Lasswell there are five elements or components of communication such as source, message, channel, receiver and effect. Getting integrated: How might knowing the various components of the communication process help you in your academic life, your professional life, and your civic life? The overall goal of the communication process is to present an individual or party with information and have them understand it. If you use an abbreviation the receiver doesn’t know or the phone autocorrects to something completely different than you meant, then semantic noise has interfered with the message transmission. Although there probably isn’t a stated rule about how to dress at the holiday party, you will notice your error without someone having to point it out, and you will likely not deviate from the norm again in order to save yourself any potential embarrassment. Rules may be stated over and over, and there may be punishment for not following them. Some common rules that influence social contexts include don’t lie to people, don’t interrupt people, don’t pass people in line, greet people when they greet you, thank people when they pay you a compliment, and so on. Just as social norms and relational history influence how we communicate, so does culture. We communicate differently with someone we just met versus someone we’ve known for a long time. In fact, intercultural communication has the potential to enrich various aspects of our lives. To go back to the examples of common social rules mentioned before, we may break the rule about not lying if the lie is meant to save someone from feeling hurt. Initial interactions with people tend to be more highly scripted and governed by established norms and rules, but when we have an established relational context, we may be able to bend or break social norms and rules more easily. While communication can be sent and received using any sensory route (sight, smell, touch, taste, or sound), most communication occurs through visual (sight) and/or auditory (sound) channels. For example, it would be virtually impossible for an instructor to take the time to communicate individually with each student in a class about every specific topic covered. This model includes participants who are simultaneously senders and receivers and accounts for how communication constructs our realities, relationships, and communities. Think of how a radio message is sent from a person in the radio studio to you listening in your car. I remember getting our first home computer, a Tandy from Radio Shack, in the early 1990s and then getting our first Internet connection at home in about 1995. Receiver: The person to whom the sender sends the message. Of course, we don’t just communicate verbally—we have various options, or channels for communication. We also can’t consciously decide to stop communicating, because communication is more than sending and receiving messages. We will continue to explore many of these issues in the “Getting Plugged In” feature box included in each chapter, but the following questions will help you begin to see the influence that CMC has in your daily communication. Conversely, people with identities that are dominant or in the majority may rarely, if ever, think about the role their cultural identities play in their communication. Source: The source is the individual, group or institution interested in communicating something to another party. Norms are social conventions that we pick up on through observation, practice, and trial and error. We will learn more about these identities in Chapter 2 “Communication and Perception”, but for now it is important for us to understand that whether we are aware of it or not, we all have multiple cultural identities that influence our communication. The radio announcer doesn’t really know if you receive his or her message or not, but if the equipment is working and the channel is free of static, then there is a good chance that the message was successfully received. ELEMENTS OF COMMUNICATION PROCESS SENDER:> The sender is a person who encodes and sends the message to the expected receiver through an appropriate channel. For example, there are certain communication rules and norms that apply to a supervisor-supervisee relationship that don’t apply to a brother-sister relationship and vice versa. The classification of functions is based on the fundamental elements of communication: Commentdocument.getElementById("comment").setAttribute( "id", "a4217b2b1dd3e8d71498308266fa1fa5" );document.getElementById("b29bd33efb").setAttribute( "id", "comment" ); Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. 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